Case Study #2: Stand your ground when necessary
As an HR director at a large global company, Carla Santos* was often privy to sensitive information about employees. So, when one of the company’s executives became severely ill, she wasn’t completely surprised when a relative reached out to explain the situation. Unfortunately, however, this put her in a tough position. “I possessed medical information which typically an employer doesn’t have access to,” she explains. “The executive team realized that the family had confided in me and they were very interested in finding out the extent and gravity of the illness,” she says. But she didn’t feel comfortable violating the family’s trust by sharing the information. She knew that keeping quiet might negatively affect how her bosses perceived her, but that was a risk she felt was worth taking.
Another issue that arises when attempting to optimize the care of the obese woman is one of justice ( 26 ). Many obese women of lower socioeconomic status do not have access to healthy foods or an ability to exercise in a safe environment (8). These factors affect the prevalence of obesity, and physicians should take such social conditions into account when counseling women regarding their weight and providing education regarding approaches to address it. While incorporating strategies to prevent and treat obesity, physicians also should beware of adhering to specific weight thresholds, because by doing so, there is a risk that an entire category of slightly lower weight women who may have near equal risk will be ignored. Additionally, as obese patients use a higher percentage of health care resources, nonobese patients may bear an unjust burden of total health care costs. The best way of effecting change might be incorporating strategies for all patients to live healthier lives and maintain a normal weight, to the extent possible given limited resources.
Stanford sinologist David Shepherd Nivison , in The Cambridge History of Ancient China , writes that the moral goods of Mohism "are interrelated: more basic wealth, then more reproduction; more people, then more production and wealth ... if people have plenty, they would be good, filial, kind, and so on unproblematically."  The Mohists believed that morality is based on "promoting the benefit of all under heaven and eliminating harm to all under heaven". In contrast to Bentham's views, state consequentialism is not utilitarian because it is not hedonistic or individualistic. The importance of outcomes that are good for the community outweigh the importance of individual pleasure and pain.