Heat and evaporation research paper

Have you ever seen a clever pooch wipe his face with a bandana on a particularly hot day? Probably not. Dogs are built to handle the heat very differently than their owners are. Dogs have very few sweat glands, so you won't see one enjoying a sauna anytime soon. While they do sweat from their paw pads and other less furry areas, the primary way dogs cool off is through panting. Panting is very rapid, shallow breathing that enhances the evaporation of water from the tongue, mouth and upper respiratory tract. Evaporation dissipates heat as water vapor.



Evaporation

Evaporation is simply the process by which liquid turns into gas. Water (liquid) turns into vapor (gas) when heat energy is applied to raise its temperature to 100°C (212°F). Water in the liquid state is a compound, and the heat breaks up the bonds into water molecules, which is gaseous in nature.

Diagram of water changing to vapor and rising upward.

Water covers about 70% of the entire surface of the earth. This means that there is a massive surface area that helps with the absorption of the sun’s heat. It is believed that about 90% of moisture in the atmosphere comes from the oceans, seas and lakes.

The amount of moisture that gets into the atmosphere via evaporation over the oceans is more than the precipitation it receives, and evaporation of moisture on land is less than the precipitation it receives.

Sometimes ice (solid particles) can turn directly into vapor without first turning into liquid. This is very common in arid climates, where dry winds hitting snow sucks up the moisture, changing the snow directly into vapor. This process is called sublimation .

Note that about 10% of the moisture in the atmosphere is provided by the process of transpiration (evapotranspiration)

IMPORTANT : From the above, you can see how important the sun is in the water cycle. Without the sun, there will be no water cycle because the entire cycle is driven by the sun's heat (energy) .



The English word latent comes from Latin latēns , meaning lying hidden . [5] [6] The term latent heat was introduced into calorimetry around 1750 when Joseph Black , commissioned by producers of Scotch whisky in search of ideal quantities of fuel and water for their distilling process, [7] to studying system changes, such as of volume and pressure, when the thermodynamic system was held at constant temperature in a thermal bath. James Prescott Joule characterised latent energy as the energy of interaction in a given configuration of particles, . a form of potential energy , and the sensible heat as an energy that was indicated by the thermometer, [8] relating the latter to thermal energy .

Introduction
The Single Effect Evaporator
Vacuum Evaporation
Heat Transfer in Evaporators
Condensers
Multiple-Effect Evaporation
Feeding of Multiple Effect Evaporators
Advantages of Multiple Effect Evaporators
Vapour Recompression
Boiling Point Elevation Raoult's Law Duhring's rule
       Duhring plot latent heats of vaporization
Evaporation of Heat-Sensitive Materials
Evaporation Equipment
Open Pans
Horizontal-tube Evaporators
Vertical-tube Evaporators
Plate Evaporators
Long-tube Evaporators
Forced-circulation Evaporators
Evaporation for Heat-sensitive Liquids
Summary
Problems

Examples in this Chapter:
. Single effect evaporator - steam usage and heat-transfer surface
. Water required in a jet condenser for an evaporator
. Heat exchange area for a surface condenser for an evaporator
. Triple effect evaporator - steam usage and heat transfer surface
. Duhring Plot for sodium chloride
. Concentration of tomato juice in a climbing film evaporator

Figures in this Chapter:
Evaporator
Double effect evaporator – forward feed
Duhring plot for boiling point of sodium chloride solutions
Evaporators (a) basket type (b) long tube (c) forced circulation

Heat and evaporation research paper

heat and evaporation research paper

Introduction
The Single Effect Evaporator
Vacuum Evaporation
Heat Transfer in Evaporators
Condensers
Multiple-Effect Evaporation
Feeding of Multiple Effect Evaporators
Advantages of Multiple Effect Evaporators
Vapour Recompression
Boiling Point Elevation Raoult's Law Duhring's rule
       Duhring plot latent heats of vaporization
Evaporation of Heat-Sensitive Materials
Evaporation Equipment
Open Pans
Horizontal-tube Evaporators
Vertical-tube Evaporators
Plate Evaporators
Long-tube Evaporators
Forced-circulation Evaporators
Evaporation for Heat-sensitive Liquids
Summary
Problems

Examples in this Chapter:
. Single effect evaporator - steam usage and heat-transfer surface
. Water required in a jet condenser for an evaporator
. Heat exchange area for a surface condenser for an evaporator
. Triple effect evaporator - steam usage and heat transfer surface
. Duhring Plot for sodium chloride
. Concentration of tomato juice in a climbing film evaporator

Figures in this Chapter:
Evaporator
Double effect evaporator – forward feed
Duhring plot for boiling point of sodium chloride solutions
Evaporators (a) basket type (b) long tube (c) forced circulation

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heat and evaporation research paperheat and evaporation research paperheat and evaporation research paperheat and evaporation research paper