Competition law gained new recognition in Europe in the inter-war years, with Germany enacting its first anti-cartel law in 1923 and Sweden and Norway adopting similar laws in 1925 and 1926 respectively. However, with the Great Depression of 1929 competition law disappeared from Europe and was revived following the Second World War when the United Kingdom and Germany, following pressure from the United States, became the first European countries to adopt fully fledged competition laws. At a regional level EU competition law has its origins in the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) agreement between France, Italy , Belgium , the Netherlands , Luxembourg and Germany in 1951 following the Second World War. The agreement aimed to prevent Germany from re-establishing dominance in the production of coal and steel as it was felt that this dominance had contributed to the outbreak of the war. Article 65 of the agreement banned cartels and article 66 made provisions for concentrations, or mergers, and the abuse of a dominant position by companies.  This was the first time that competition law principles were included in a plurilateral regional agreement and established the trans-European model of competition law. In 1957 competition rules were included in the Treaty of Rome , also known as the EC Treaty, which established the European Economic Community (EEC). The Treaty of Rome established the enactment of competition law as one of the main aims of the EEC through the "institution of a system ensuring that competition in the common market is not distorted." The two central provisions on EU competition law on companies were established in article 85, which prohibited anti-competitive agreements, subject to some exemptions, and article 86 prohibiting the abuse of dominant position. The treaty also established principles on competition law for member states, with article 90 covering public undertakings, and article 92 making provisions on state aid. Regulations on mergers were not included as member states could not establish consensus on the issue at the time. 
Essay Topic: • The subject of the paper submitted must be one of the following topics: 1. Companion animals have long been recognized by the law as personal property. When an owner brings suit for loss of a pet or injury to a pet, the damages are calculated under property principles ,which may cap recovery at fair market value. The courts and/or legislatures of several states have beenwilling to accept claims requesting damages beyonda pet’s market value, including for reasonable and necessary veterinary costs that are above market value and for a pet’s “actual value” which can include economic factors besides market value. A few states have allowed emotion-based claims when a pet is maliciously injured or killed, but nearly all states have rejected claims for emotional distress, pain and suffering, sentimental value, loss of companionship and other non-economic damages in negligence claims involving harm to pets. Discuss the causes of action and types of damages above with relation to companion animals. What types of situations would give rise to lawsuits over animal injuries? What are the benefits and disadvantages of allowing expanded liability in these situations? What would be the net impact on pet welfare? All points of view are welcome. OR 2. Pet custody has become a highly dynamic area of the law. Under the traditional view, which is reflected in most state laws, companion animals are considered personal property. In recent years, some courts have started changing how they handle pet custody in family law cases, such as divorce. When a couple separates, the pet is traditionally allocated to one of its owners. It may be determinative if the pet was a gift from one of the owners to the other. In recent years, courts have been experimenting with different types of solutions, including split custody and assessing the best interests of the pet. Custody issues also arise with law enforcement, when the police or animal control take custody of a pet that has been severely neglected and is in need of immediate medical attention. Comparable issues arise when a local shelter takes custody of a pet found in the street. Discuss the relevant law surrounding pet custody, the potential limits on ownership interests in pets, the pros and cons and any potential future impacts of changing the law. All points of view are welcome.